- ★ ミシュラングリーンガイド 一ツ星
Saicho, Dengyo Daishi
Saicho was born in Shiga-gun, Omi no Kuni (Otsu-shi Shiga Prefecture), and he became a pupil of Gyohyo, who was a priest in Ominokuni-Kokubunji Temple, when he was 12 years old. And he became a fellow priest in Todaiji Temple, Nara (ennobling religious precepts). In 785 (the 4th year of Enryaku), Saicho got a thatched hut in Hieizan near his hometown. He practiced asceticism and studied Buddhist sculptures.
3 years later, he erected small temples consisted of Yakushi-do,,Monju-do and scriptures deposit that located Konpon Chu-do now. Enryakuji temple was started them as naming Ichijoshikan-in.
Emperor Kanmu was fascinated by Saicho. He was assisted from the Emperor and the nobles. Enryakuji Temple was located on unlucky quarter in Heiankyo (northeastern quarter), so it became more and more prosperous as a training hall that guards the nation. After he was died in 824 (the 14th year of Kojin), the temple was given the name “Enryakuji Temple” named from the era when it was founded.
In 805 (the 23th year of Enryaku), Saicho went to Tang as a student (Short Overseas Trainee) .He visited Mt. Tendai that was a sacred place, and studies Tendai Kyogaku from Douzui at Shuzenji Temple, and Gyoman at Butsumouji Temple. He studies Mikkyo from Juneiajari in Esshuryuukouji Temple and Zen from Shukunen in Zenrinji Temple. He studies four thoughts that were Tendai Kyogaku, Kairitsu, Mikyo and Zen. These became the basis of Nihon Tendai sect that called Enmitsu icchi. He transferred various throughts. That was a cheractristics of his studies, and the source of shusi, Jodokyo and Zen sect from Enryakuji Temple.
In 806 ( the 25th year of Enryaku), Nihon Tendai sect was officially permitted. But Saicho`s heart desire that was founded Daijo Kaidan in Mt. Hiei was not realized while he was alive. At that time in Japan, to be a priest was a kind of Japanese Qualification. A ceremony “Kaidan” for becoming a qualified priest was held only three Temples, which were Todaiji Temple in Nara, Kanzeomji Temple in Chikushi and Yakushuji Temple in Kazusano.
So Tendai sect can not trained indivisually, but the foundation of Daijo Kaidan meant that Enryakuji Temple can train (independence from old Buddhism in Nara) His heart desire was permitted in 7 days after Saicho was died.)
Mt. Hiei after the foundation of Daijo Kadan, From Heian to Kamakura produced many priests in Japanese Buddhism History. Enjn (Jikaku Daishi) and Enchin (Chisho Daishi) studies in Tang and brought back a lot of Buddhist sculpture.
Several years later, Priests in Mt. Hiei divided in two groups, Enjin and Enchin. They stood in opposition. In 993 (the 4th Year of Seireki),1000 priests of Enchin Group were left Mt.Hiei and stayed in Enjoji Temple (Miidera Temple). After that, “Sanmon” (Enjin-Group Enryakuji Temple) and “Jimon “(Enchin-Group Enjoji Temple) had a lot of oppositions. In this situation Houshi was under arms and armed priest was came into existence.
Principal priests who practiced asceticism
・ Honen(1133-1212) The founder of Japanese Jodo sect
・ Eisai (1141-1215) The founder of Japanese Rinzai sect
・Jien (1155-1225) History book Author of “Gukansho”, The chiefbof Tendai sect
・Dougen (1200-1253) the Founder of Japanese Soutou sect
・Shinran (1173-1263) the founder of Jodoshin sect
・Nichiren (1222-1282 )the founder of Nichiren sect
Militaly Power that Enryakuji Temple had was getting stronger every year. Even Shirakawa abdicator from Emperor ruled and had quite strong power said “Water of Kamo river, Dice for Sugoroku and cornel could not be obeyed me.” In Enryakuji Temple something happened that they did not understand, they appealed their power carrying Mikoshi on their Shoulder. And they carried their point.
Their power was getting stronger and stronger embed temples and shrines. The area controlled by them and anyone could not be obeyed was “Keidai”which meant nobody can enter, aproved by the governmental authority. In this way Enryakuji Temple had power accompanied by the authority, and had like an independent country and the area controlled by them and ignored. Priest soldiers in Enryakuji Temple had same power as priests soldiers in Kofukuji Temple, they were in fear of “NantoHokuryo”.
The power of Enryakuji Temple threatened samurai government, which had more power than nobles. In this situation Ashikaga no Yoshinori, who was the 6th Muromachi Shogun tried to control Enryakuji Temple Before Yoshinori became a Shogun, he gave his name Yoshimado, and he was head of Hieizan side, but after he became Shogun, he was opposed to Hieizan.
In 1435 (the 7th year of Eikyo),Ashikaga no Norimasa invited strong priests in Enryakuji Temple by a stratsagem and killed them. Priesta, which was repeled him, stayed in Konpon Chu-do and criticized Yoshinori strongly. But the attitude of Yoshinori was not changed his mind, the priests fired to Konpon Chu-do and comitted suicide, almost all buildings were burnd. In August of same year; Yoshinori ordered Konpon Chu-do to rebuild, and contributed to countries and within several years Konpon Chu-do was completed.
And the Honzon was restored from remained small part of it. Now it arranged at Konpon Chu-do. Yoshinori was succeeded in bringing under control but after Yoshinori was killed, Enryakuji Temple armed again. Enryakuji Temple was armed again and became stronger and stronger. Hieizan got back to independent statement with several thousands of priest soldiers. In Sengokujidai, Enryakuji Temple continues to be independent statement. At the end of Sengoku Oda Nobunaga controlled around Kyoto. And later he was opposed to Ashikaga no Yoshiaki. Enryakuji Temple was Yoshiaki side. Making a combination of Asai and Asakura, he was anti Nobunaga side.
In 1571 (the 2nd year of genki), 4 thousands of Priest Soldiers in Enryakuji Temple had strong military power and authority would be opposed , so he requested Enryakuji Temple to release military equipment. It also rejected and on September 12, they encircled and fired on Enryakuji Temple. Do-to of Enryakuji Temple was burnt. Priest and priest soldiers were killed.
After Nobunaga was died Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu were rebuilt priests’building. By Tenkai, who was Ieyasu’s right hand, the power became stronger again. After Toueizan Kaneiji Temple was founded in Ueno for the purpous of saving from Kimon in Edo. Deskwork for Tendai sect was transferred to Edo. And Third Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu was rebuilt Konpon Chu-do.
Michelin Green Guide
One Star Enryakuji Temple, Kokuhouden, Konpon Chu-do, Shakado
- 4220 Sakamotohonmachi, Otsu-shi, Shiga Prefecture, 520-0116
- Formal Name
- Hieizan Enryakuji Temple
- Sangou (Mountain Name)
- Hieizan mountain
- Tendai sect
- Date Founded
- 788（the 7th year of Enryaku）
- Founding Patron
- Cultural Properties
Konpon Chu-do (National Treasure)
Kaidanin, Konpon Chu-do kairou, Kinuhonchosiki Tendaitaishizou (National Important Cultural Property)
Honribou Garden（National A Place of Scenic Beauty）
Precinct（National A Historical Site）
Comon Ticket : Higashito, Nishito, Yokokawa ( adult ) 550yen
8:30～16:30（It depends on season and area）
- Access Guide
Keihan Line “Demachiyanagi” → Eizan Dentetsu Line “Yase → Eizan Cable →Eizan Rope Way “Hiei Sancho”→ Bus “Enryakuji Bus Center”( or walk along a mountain trail from Sancho about 30minutes )
Get on Hieizan driveway Bus at JR station“Kyoto” and Get off “EnryakujiBus Center’Hieizan driveway’
- Official Website